Sources

Information presented on Essential Energy Everyday is derived from the following sources:

About | U.S. Lead Battery Industry by the Numbers

92,000 U.S. Jobs – U.S. jobs supported by the lead battery industry. 
Economic Contribution of the U.S. Lead Battery Industry, Battery Council International, Sept. 2019

70% – Global rechargeable battery market supported by lead batteries.
The Rechargeable Battery Market and Main Trends 2018-2030, Avicenne Energy, March 2019

61,000 MWh – Predicted growth of global lead battery market from 2025 to 2031.
2020 Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation

Approximately 90% of North American lead battery demand is met by North American manufacturers.
C. Pillot, Avicenne Energy, 2020

73% Domestic Material Supply – The amount of lead demand met by U.S. lead battery recycling.
Lead Data Sheet – Mineral Commodity Summaries 2020, U.S. Geological Survey, Jan. 2020

130M Recycled Annually – The number of lead batteries kept from landfills in the U.S. 
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019

#1 – Lead batteries are the most recycled consumer product in the U.S.
Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: 2015 Fact Sheet, Environmental Protection Agency, July 2018

99% of lead batteries are safely recycled…
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019

far surpassing any other battery chemistry including lithium-ion (5% recycled).
Vehicle Technologies Office’s Research Plan to Reduce, Recycle, and Recover Critical Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries, U.S. Department of Energy, June 2019

+90% Lead batteries provide nearly 90% of the backup power required for 24/7 telecommunications.
2020 Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation

92% of Demand – Their reliability, cost and safety make lead batteries the dominant choice for the UPS battery market, meeting 92% of demand.
2020 Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation

Every U.S. mass-produced car and truck (over 275 million), including every electric vehicle and approximately 60% of all forklifts, contains and relies on lead batteries.
Vehicles-in-Operation, IHS Markit, July 2019
Top 20 Lift Truck Suppliers in 2019: Market Reaches New Heights, Modern Materials Handling, 2019

+6% – Expected growth of the 12V lead battery automotive market between 2015-2030 and a market value of $31.9B.
2020 Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation

90% – Motive power battery demand in applications such as forklifts, is met by lead batteries.
2020 Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation

Benefits | Domestic Infrastructure

99% U.S. Recycling Rate
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019

92,000 U.S. Jobs Supported by the Lead Battery Industry 
Economic Contribution of the U.S. Lead Battery Industry, Battery Council International, Sept. 2019

80% Recycled Material – Typical composition of a new lead battery.
“Environmental Impact and Life Cycle Assessment of Lead Battery and Architectural Sheet Production,” The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2016

Domestic U.S. recycling of lead batteries and other lead-bearing scrap provides 73% of the domestic demand for lead. 
Lead Data Sheet – Mineral Commodity Summaries 2020, U.S. Geological Survey, Jan. 2020

Of that 73% total, 93% goes to manufacture new lead batteries
Lead Data Sheet – Mineral Commodity Summaries 2020, U.S. Geological Survey, Jan. 2020

Lead batteries have a nearly 100% recycled rate…
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019

…(lithium-ion is at 5% [recycling rate]
Vehicle Technologies Office’s Research Plan to Reduce, Recycle, and Recover Critical Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries, U.S. Department of Energy, June 2019

Benefits | Essential

Over 70% of the world’s rechargeable energy storage needs, including the booming renewable energy sector’s requirements, are met by efficient lead batteries.
The Rechargeable Battery Market and Main Trends 2018-2030, Avicenne Energy, March 2019

Lead batteries power more than 275 million cars and trucks in the U.S., delivering people to jobs, education and healthcare.
Vehicles-in-Operation, IHS Markit, April 2019

Lead batteries help to safely transport Americans via public transportation 34 million times each weekday.
American Public Transportation Association, 2019

The New York Stock Exchange relies on lead battery backup power to protect its critical online data.
“Berks a Major Player in Worldwide Battery Production,” Reading Eagle, July 2017

Benefits | Essential Fact Sheet

Lead batteries provide nearly 90% of the backup power required for 24/7 telecommunications.
2019 Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation

The New York Stock Exchange, Google and other major entities rely on lead battery backup power to protect massive online data repositories.
Berks a Major Player in Worldwide Battery Production, Reading Eagle, July 2017

Every U.S. mass-produced car and truck (over 275 million), including every electric vehicle and approximately 60% of all forklifts, contains and relies on lead batteries.
Vehicles-in-Operation, IHS Markit, July 2019
Top 20 Lift Truck Suppliers in 2019: Market Reaches New Heights, Modern Materials Handling, 2019

The global automotive industry produces more than 85 million new vehicles annually. On average, each vehicle will use three to four lead batteries over its lifespan.
Success of the Circular Economy of Automotive Battery Recycling, Johnson Controls, 2017

Lead batteries help to safely transport Americans via public transportation 34 million times each weekday.
Public Transportation Facts, American Public Transportation Association, 2019

Lead batteries provide over 70% of the world’s rechargeable energy storage needs.
The Rechargeable Battery Market and Main Trends 2018-2030, Avicenne Energy, May 2019

Benefits | Innovative

Start-stop technology utilizing lead batteries is eliminating 5.3 million tons of greenhouse gas emissions annually in the U.S.
Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2021

Every U.S. mass-produced car and truck (over 275 million), including every electric vehicle, contains and relies on lead batteries.
Vehicles-in-Operation, IHS Markit, April 2019

Benefits | Reliable

34 million times each weekday, lead batteries help transport Americans via public transportation.
American Public Transportation Association, 2019

Benefits | Safe

The 2017 Sustainable Consortium Impact Report recognized the industry for its strong record on worker health and safety.
2017 Impact Report, The Sustainability Consortium, 2017

Modern, closed-loop recycling in the U.S. keeps 130 million lead batteries from landfills each year.
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019

Benefits | Safe Fact Sheet

Since 1999, Battery Council International’s members have committed to keeping the blood lead levels (BLLs) of workers at levels well below those required by OSHA.
Battery Council International, 2019

At the end of 2019, average BLLs were more than 80% below what OSHA requires.
Battery Council International, 2019

Air emissions from lead battery production and recycling are each less than 1% of total U.S. lead emissions.
“2017 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) Data,” Environmental Protection Agency, Feb 2020 

In the U.S., lead batteries maintain a 99% recycling rate using a closed-loop recycling network that keeps 130 million lead batteries from landfills annually.
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019

The world entrusts 70% of its rechargeable energy storage needs to lead batteries.
The Rechargeable Battery Market and Main Trends 2018-2030, Avicenne Energy, May 2019

Lead batteries provide nearly 90% of the backup power required for 24/7 telecommunications.
2019 Avicenne Energy Report commissioned by Consortium for Battery Innovation

Lead batteries are one of the preferred solutions for data center uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems.
“10 Key Factors to Consider When Choosing a Data Centre UPS Battery,” Technical Review, Feb 2020

Lead batteries help to safely transport Americans via public transportation 34 million times each weekday.
Public Transportation Facts, American Public Transportation Association, 2019

When used properly, lead batteries are a safe energy source, able to withstand up to 167°F and conditions as cold as -22°F.
A Review of Battery Technologies for Automotive Applications, Joint Analysis: EUROBAT, ILA, JAMA, KAMA, ACEA, 2014

Benefits | Supply Chain Infographic

92,000 U.S. Jobs Supported by the Lead Battery Industry 
Economic Contribution of the U.S. Lead Battery Industry, Battery Council International, Sept. 2019

130M Recycled Annually – The number of lead batteries kept from landfills in the U.S. 
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019

99% Recycling Rate
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019

Compared to lithium-ion [recycling rate] at 5%.
Vehicle Technologies Office’s Research Plan to Reduce, Recycle, and Recover Critical Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries, U.S. Department of Energy, June 2019

73% Domestic Fulfillment – The amount of lead demand met by U.S. lead battery recycling.
Lead Data Sheet – Mineral Commodity Summaries 2020, U.S. Geological Survey, Jan. 2020

80% Recycled Material – Typical composition of a new lead battery.
“Environmental Impact and Life Cycle Assessment of Lead Battery and Architectural Sheet Production,” The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2016

Approximately 90% of North American lead battery demand is met by North American manufacturers.
C. Pillot, Avicenne Energy, 2020

Benefits | Sustainable

EPA reports that lead batteries have a 99% recycling rate.
Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: 2018 Fact Sheet, Environmental Protection Agency, December 2020

A new lead battery is typically comprised of more than 80% recycled material.
“Environmental Impact and Life Cycle Assessment of Lead Battery and Architectural Sheet Production,” The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2016

Lead batteries are used worldwide in virtually every hybrid and electric vehicle. They are an integral part of start-stop and micro-hybrid engine systems, which lower fuel consumption by up to 10%
“Environmental Impact and Life Cycle Assessment of Lead Battery and Architectural Sheet Production,” The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2016

Benefits | Sustainable Fact Sheet

99% of lead batteries are recycled, making them the most recycled consumer product in the U.S.2 and the most recyclable battery technology. (In contrast, less than 5% of lithium-ion batteries are collected and recycled.)
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019
Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: 2015 Fact Sheet, Environmental Protection Agency, July 2018
Vehicle Technologies Office’s Research Plan to Reduce, Recycle, and Recover Critical Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries, U.S. Department of Energy, June 2019

Modern, closed-loop recycling in the U.S. keeps 130 million lead batteries from landfills each year and provides U.S. battery manufacturers a secure domestic supply of recycled inputs.
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019

Lead batteries rank among the top five consumer product categories in sustainability.
2017 Impact Report, The Sustainability Consortium, 2017

A new lead battery is typically comprised of more than 80% recycled material, thanks to the circular model of the industry.
“Environmental Impact and Life Cycle Assessment of Lead Battery and Architectural Sheet Production,” The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2016

Lead batteries are an integral part of start-stop and micro-hybrid vehicle engine systems, which lower fuel consumption by up to 10%.
“Environmental Impact and Life Cycle Assessment of Lead Battery and Architectural Sheet Production,” The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2016

Start-stop technology using lead batteries is eliminating 4.5 million tons of greenhouse gas emissions annually in the U.S.
Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2019

Over 70% of the world’s rechargeable energy storage needs are met by lead batteries.
The Rechargeable Battery Market and Main Trends 2018-2030, Avicenne Energy, May 2019

Circular Economy

Research shows that 62% of U.S. firms are planning to move to a circular economy. The lead battery industry leads the curve by being in the 16% who already have.
Opportunity and Disruption: How Circular Thinking Could Change US Business Models, ING Americas, Jan. 2019

A new lead battery is typically comprised of more than 80% recycled material.
“Environmental Impact and Life Cycle Assessment of Lead Battery and Architectural Sheet Production,” The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2016

By 2050, a more circular economy can cut emissions from heavy industry by 56% in the EU alone.
The Circular Economy – A Powerful Force for Climate Mitigation, Material Economics, 2018

Global competition for finite resources will intensify as world population and economies grow.
Environmental Protection Agency, 2019

U.S. lead battery manufacturers source approximately 70% of lead from domestic recycling facilities.
Principal Analyst Lead Markets, Wood Mackenzie, 2019

$4.5 trillion – The predicted amount of additional economic output generated by the circular economy by 2030.
Waste to Wealth: Creating Advantage in a Circular Economy, Accenture, 2015

The world entrusts 70% of its rechargeable energy storage needs to lead batteries.
The Rechargeable Battery Market and Main Trends 2018-2030, Avicenne Energy, May 2019

The EPA ranks lead batteries as the most recycled product in the U.S.
Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: 2018 Fact Sheet, Environmental Protection Agency, December 2020

Modern, closed-loop recycling keeps more than 130 million lead batteries from landfills each year.
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2019

In recognition of the challenges and need to recycle lithium-ion batteries, the U.S. Department of Energy has established a $5.5 million prize to “accelerate the development of [lithium-ion battery recycling] solutions from concept to prototype to demonstration.”
Energy Department Announces Battery Recycling Prize and Battery Recycling R&D Center, Department of Energy, Jan. 2019

Lead batteries have a 99% recycling rate, the highest of any consumer product in the U.S.
National Recycling Rate Study, Battery Council International, 2017

Lead batteries rank among the top five consumer product categories in sustainability.
2017 Impact Report, The Sustainability Consortium, 2017

Solutions | Start-Stop Technology

Start-stop technology utilizing lead batteries is eliminating 5.3 million tons of greenhouse gas emissions annually in the U.S.
Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2021

Solutions | Start-Stop Vehicles Infographic

Start-stop technology is a revolutionary step toward energy efficiency. Hybrid vehicles have always had this feature.
FOTW #1087: Non-Hybrid Stop/Start Systems Were Installed on 35.7% of All Light-Duty Trucks Produced in Model Year 2018, U.S. Department of Energy, June 2019

Between 2016 – 2020, start-stop vehicles surge from 25 million to 65 million vehicles in North America, Europe and China.
Johnson Controls, 2016

From 2018-2022, the market for automotive start-stop systems is predicted to grow at nearly 20% (CAGR).
Global Automotive Start-Stop System market 2018-2022, Infiniti Research Limited, Feb 2018

At the close of 2020, 35% of passenger cars sold in the U.S. will have this feature, compared to 9% in 2016.
Global Start-Stop Technology Market Size, Share, Development, Growth and Demand Forecast to 2022, P&S Market Research, Feb 2017

Between 2012–2018, the number of light-duty trucks sold in the U.S. with start-stop grew from less than 1% to almost 36%.
The 2018 EPA Automotive Trends Report: Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Fuel Economy, and Technology since 1975, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, March 2019

Start-stop technology using lead batteries is eliminating 4.5 million tons of greenhouse gas emissions annually in the U.S.
Consortium for Battery Innovation, 2019

Solutions | Vehicles

Approximately 60% of all forklifts in the U.S. use lead batteries to move the materials that fuel our economy.
Top 20 Lift Truck Suppliers in 2019: Market Reaches New Heights, Modern Materials Handling, 2019

Every U.S. mass-produced car and truck (over 275 million), including every electric vehicle, contains and relies on lead batteries.
Vehicles-in-Operation, IHS Markit, April 2019

Tim Fister from the Argonne National Laboratory

There's a lot of room for growth in ... lead battery chemistry ... it's something that would really make it even more competitive for things like stationary storage.

Dr. Tim Fister, Materials Scientist, Argonne National Laboratory