Domestic Manufacturing

The United States should not rely on unstable foreign countries to meet critical energy storage needs. The lead battery industry has an established network of domestic manufacturing, collection and recycling facilities. Together, they create a circular economy that ensures consistent lead battery fulfillment and quick scalability within the U.S.

Established Domestic Infrastructure

The lead battery industry operates more than 165 GWh of annual manufacturing capacity in the U.S., which was the largest battery manufacturing base in the nation as of 2022. Research shows:

  • The U.S. supports more than 38,000 direct U.S. manufacturing jobs and a total of 121,000 jobs in every major section of the country.
  • Over 90% of lead batteries sold in the U.S. are manufactured in North America (most within the U.S.) by more than 50 manufacturing facilities.
  • 59% of the lead metal used by U.S. battery manufacturers is sourced from domestic recyclers.
Lead battery domestic circular economy prevents supply chain disruptions

Eliminating Reliance on Foreign Suppliers

America’s significant demand for energy storage will require significant materials. Unlike other battery technologies, lead batteries don’t rely heavily on raw materials from foreign countries. This reduces U.S. dependency on foreign supply sources.

Lead: Domestic Mineral Sourcing

Lead battery manufacturing predominantly requires a single raw material (lead), which is infinitely recyclable and done so domestically.

  • U.S. lead battery manufacturers source more than 83% of the lead needed for new lead batteries from North American recycling facilities.
  • Lead batteries have an unparalleled 99% recycling rate in the U.S.

Lithium: Foreign Mineral Sourcing 

Manufacturing lithium-ion batteries requires four critical raw materials, primarily sourced off-shore: lithium, graphite, cobalt and manganese.

  • China controls 51% of the global total of chemical lithium, 62% of chemical cobalt and 100% of natural graphite.
  • Six of the 10 biggest EV battery producers are based in China. One of them makes three out of every 10 EV batteries globally.
Lead battery manufacturers support a domestic supply chain

Ready, Reliable Energy Storage

The lead battery industry is ideally positioned to help meet energy storage demand domestically and reduce dependence on critical materials from foreign countries.

Through a strong domestic infrastructure and circular economy, lead batteries are a reliable, sustainable and economically viable solution poised for scalable growth.

The industry will continue advocating for policies that help it expand its capacity and advance technologically.

Lead batteries boast an extensive network of existing manufacturing, collection and recycling facilities in North America, including:


  • 50 manufacturing facilities, 39 in the U.S.
  • 14+ recycling facilities, 10 in the U.S.
  • 300,000+ retail distribution and collection sites for used batteries.
Engaging with Policymakers

Engaging with Policymakers

BCI supports policies that maintain and strengthen domestic manufacturing, as well as policies that remove barriers to U.S. manufacturers remaining globally competitive:

  • Expand Domestic Manufacturing Incentives: BCI supports incentive programs for existing domestic manufacturers to grow and upgrade their operations and make technological innovations to increase domestic production. Grants, tax provisions and other incentives ensure that domestic manufacturers remain globally competitive. It is important that these incentives are available across industry sectors and across all battery chemistries.
  • Remove Costly Hurdles for Domestic Battery Manufacturers: BCI supports the USA Batteries Act, which would reverse harmful excise taxes on domestic battery manufacturers. The Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act, passed in the 117th Congress, created a new tax on certain chemicals, including those used in the manufacturing process of lead batteries. This is only a tax on domestic manufacturers, which not only creates a new cost for domestic lead battery manufacturers, but also a competitive advantage for foreign lead battery manufacturers.


Pete Stanislawczyk, East Penn

Lead batteries will be the primary stored power source for these systems. Based upon our insights, we believe lead AGM – or absorbed glass mat batteries – will be the battery of choice for the next 20-plus years.

Pete Stanislawczyk, Senior Vice President Transportation Division, East Penn Manufacturing Company